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Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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Comprehensively explores sexually transmitted diseases, from epidemiology, causative pathogens, clinical impact, and immunology, t... Weiterlesen
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Beschreibung

Comprehensively explores sexually transmitted diseases, from epidemiology, causative pathogens, clinical impact, and immunology, to management strategies utilizing new strategies of genomics and next-generation diagnostic tools

Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are very common worldwide. More than 20 different STIs have been identified, and about 19 million men and women are infected each year in the United States alone. This book looks at the complete picture of common STIs- how they form, evolve, and transmit, as well as how they can be treated and managed with modern techniques, medicines, and tools.

Diagnostics to Pathogenomics of Sexually Transmitted Infections runs the spectrum of discussion ranging from introduction of causative pathogen, their pathogenesis to epidemiology, immunology, to anatomy and physiology of human genitalia and management strategies. The book offers in-depth chapter coverage on effect of probiotics on reproductive health; mucosal immunity in sexually transmitted infections; the role of circumcision in preventing STIs; Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV); genital herpes; molluscum contagiosum; genital warts; chlaymydia trachomatis; donovanosis; gonorrhoea; treponematoses; genital mycoplasms; bacterial vaginosis; vulvovaginal candidiasis; chlaymydia; scabies; chancroid, yeast infections; and more.

  • Comprehensively compiles most of the major sexually transmitted infections
  • Presents updated information on clinical aspects of sexually transmitted infections
  • Examines the priorities in pathogenesis of human sexually transmitted infections and discusses new strategies of genomics and next-generation diagnostic tools used for detection of such pathogens
  • Explores the future of rapid molecular diagnostic techniques and the challenges posed in the diagnosis of human STIs
  • Includes bench to bedside content that will appeal to both basic and clinical researchers

By offering the latest knowledge about recent advances in sexually transmitted infections in an interdisciplinary fashion, Diagnostics to Pathogenomics of Sexually Transmitted Infections is the perfect book for virologists, microbiologists, infectious disease experts, vaccinologists, biomedical researchers, clinicians, pharmacologists, and public health specialists.



About the Editor

Dr. Sunit K. Singh is Professor of Molecular Immunology and Head of the Molecular Biology Unit at the Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences (IMS), Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi, India.

Autorentext

About the Editor

Dr. Sunit K. Singh is Professor of Molecular Immunology and Head of the Molecular Biology Unit at the Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences (IMS), Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi, India.

Inhalt

About the Editor xv

Contributors xvii

Preface xxi

1 Mucosal Immunity in Sexually Transmitted Infections 1
Jiri Mestecky and Michael W. Russell

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Innate Immunity in the Genital Tract 2

1.2.1 Humoral Defense Factors in Female Secretions 2

1.2.2 Innate Defense Factors in the Male Tract 4

1.3 Immunoglobulins in Secretions of the Genital Tract 4

1.3.1 Female Genital Tract Secretions 4

1.3.2 Origin of Igs in Human Genital Tract Secretions 7

1.3.3 Functions of Genital Tract Antibodies 8

1.4 Cells of the Mucosal Immune System of the Genital Tract 10

1.4.1 Epithelial Cells 10

1.4.2 Immunoglobulin?Producing Cells 10

1.4.3 T Cells and Other Cell Types 11

1.5 Induction of Immune Responses in the Genital Tract 12

1.5.1 Induction of Humoral Immune Responses in Human Male Genital Tract Secretions 14

1.5.2 Immune Responses in the Genital Tract after Infections 15

1.5.2.1 Gonorrhea 15

1.5.2.2 Chlamydia 15

1.5.2.3 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) 16

1.5.2.4 Human Papilloma Virus 16

1.6 Concluding

Remarks 17

References 17

2 The Role of Circumcision in Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections 27
Kourosh Afshar, Behnam Kazemi, and Andrew E. MacNeily

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Biological Mechanisms 27

2.3 Methods of Circumcision 28

2.4 Complications 28

2.5 Role of MC in Transmission of HIV 29

2.5.1 Male?to?Female Transmission 29

2.5.2 Female?to?Male Transmission 29

2.5.3 Male?to?Male Transmission 30

2.6 Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) 30

2.7 Nonulcerative STIs 31

2.7.1 Gonorrhea 31

2.7.2 Trichomonas Vaginalis (Tv) 32

2.7.3 Chlamydia Trachomatis (Ct) 32

2.8 Ulcerative STIs/Genital Ulcer Disease (GUD) 32

2.8.1 Syphilis 33

2.8.2 Chancroid 34

2.9 Use of Male Circumcision as a Public Health Measure 34

2.10 Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) 35

References 36

3 Effect of Probiotics on Reproductive Health 41
Piotr Kochan, Magdalena Strus, and Piotr B. Heczko

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 Definition of Probiotics 43

3.3 Vaginal Microflora (Microbiota) 46

3.4 Applications of Probiotics in Vaginal and Reproductive Health 49

3.4.1 Vaginitis (Aerobic Vaginitis (AV), Bacterial Vaginosis (BV), and Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC)) 50

3.4.2 UTI 52

3.4.3 Pregnancy 52

3.4.4 Other Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB/GYN) Uses of Probiotics 53

3.5 Conclusions 53

References 54

4 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection 61
Santosh Kumar Singh and Sunit K. Singh

4.1 Introduction 61

4.2 HIV Structure/Genome 62

4.3 Routes of Transmission 64

4.3.1 Sexual Transmission 64

4.3.1.1 STDs and Sexual Transmission of HIV 64

4.3.1.2 Vulnerability of Female Genital Tract for HIV Transmission 66

4.3.2 Transmission by Contaminated Blood/Blood Product Transfusion 68

4.3.3 Transmission by Sharing Syringe and Needles 68

4.3.4 Transmission from Mother to Fetus or Newborn Babies 68

4.3.5 Occupational Risk in Healthcare Workers 68

4.4 Host Factors Influencing HIV Infectivity in Sexual Transmission 69

4.4.1 Systemic Host Factors 69

4.4.2 Local Host Factors 69

4.5 Viral Factors Influencing HIV Infectivity in Sexual Transmission 70

4.6 Mechanism of Pathogenesis 71

4.7 Diagnosis of HIV Infections 72

4.8 Therapeutics 73

4.8.1 Antiretroviral Therapies (ARTs) 73

4.8.2 Combinational ARTs 74

4.9 Conclusion 74

References 75

5 Genital Herpes 83
Andreas Sauerbrei

5.1 Introduction 83

5.2 Pathogen 83

5.3 Epidemiology 84

5.4 Pathogenesis and Immunity 84

5.5 Clinical Features 86

5.6 Diagnosis 87

5.7 Treatment 90

5.8 Prevention and Control 93

5.9 Conclusion 94

References 95

6 Molluscum Contagiosum 101
Tugba Kevser Uzuncakmak and Ayse Serap Karadag

6.1 Introduction 101

6.2 Epidemiology 101

6.3 Molecular Pathogenesis 102

6.4 Diagnosis 103

6.5 Clinical Features 106

6.6 Mode of Spread of Infections 107

6.7 Treatment 107

6.7.1 Treatment Options 108

6.7.1.1 Watchful Waiting 108

6.7.1.2 Procedure?Based Treatments 109

6.7.1.3 Chemical Agents 110

6.7.1.4 Immune Modulators 111

6.7.1.5 Antiviral Agents 112

6.7.1.6 Immunocompromised Patients 112

6.8 Conclusion 113

References 113

7 Genital Warts 119
Filip Rob

7.1 Introduction 119

7.2 Human Papillomavirus 119

7.2.1 Taxonomy 119

7.2.2 Life Cycle 120<...

Produktinformationen

Titel: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Autor:
Editor:
EAN: 9781119380900
Digitaler Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM
Format: E-Book (pdf)
Hersteller: Wiley-Blackwell
Genre: Mikrobiologie
Anzahl Seiten: 416
Veröffentlichung: 19.09.2018
Dateigrösse: 26.8 MB